Environmental Assessement. “EIA/SEA are structured approaches for obtaining and evaluating environmental information prior to its use in decision-making in the development process. This information consists basically of predictions of how the environment is expected to change if certain alternative actions are implemented and advice on how best to manage environmental changes if one alternative is selected and implemented. EIA focuses on proposed physical developments such as highways, power stations, water resource projects, etc. SEA focuses on proposed actions at a ‘higher’ level such as new or amended laws, policies, programmes and plans” (UNEP, 2004).
Land-Use Planning. “Land-use planning is the systematic assessment of land and water potential, alternatives for land use and economic and social conditions in order to select and adopt the best land-use options. Its purpose is to select and put into practice those land uses that will best meet the needs of the people while safeguarding resources for the future. The driving force in planning is the need for change, the need for improved management or the need for a quite different pattern of land use dictated by changing circumstances” (FAO, 1993).
Soundscape Ecology. “A conceptual framework of soundscape ecology is based on the causes and consequences of biological (biophony), geophysical (geophony), and human-produced (anthrophony) sounds. A proposed research agenda for soundscape ecology includes six areas: (1) measurement and analytical challenges, (2) spatial-temporal dynamics, (3) soundscape linkage to environmental covariates, (4) human impacts on the soundscape, (5) soundscape impacts on humans, and (6) soundscape impacts on ecosystems” (Pijanowski et al., 2011).
Environmental Noise. “The health impacts of environmental noise are a growing concern among both the general public and policy-makers. Widespread exposure to environmental noise from road, rail, airports and industrial sites contributes to the burden of disease. Indeed, noise pollution is considered not only an environmental nuisance but also a threat to public health” (WHO, 2011).